The biology It is the science dedicated to the study of the composition, development, relationships and functioning of living organisms. Molecular , meanwhile, is that linked to the molecules : the minimum units of an element that maintain their chemical properties and that may be composed of different or identical atoms.
These ideas allow us to delve into the definition of molecular biology . This is the branch of biology that is focused on the analysis of biological phenomena from the perspective of the structure of the molecules .
It can be said that molecular biology studies, from the molecular point of view, the processes carried out by living organisms. Through knowledge about properties of molecules, it is possible to explain various questions of life.
In general, molecular biology is oriented towards macromolecules : those that have a larger size and molecular weight. In this context, the protein and the nucleic acids , two macromolecules of enormous relevance in the functioning of organisms.
Molecular biology experts study the composition, structure and functions of molecules that are fundamental in the development of vital processes. The synthesis protein, the links between deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ) and ribonucleic acid (RNA ) and metabolism are some of the topics of interest to molecular biologists.
One of the branches of science related to molecular biology is the biological Chemistry , the area dedicated to the study of the biomolecules that make up living beings and the way in which they interact according to the chemical and physical laws of inanimate matter so that life is maintained and prolonged. This discipline is also interested in the observation of organisms according to the molecular changes that derive from the metabolic procedures that characterize them.
Simply put, we can say that molecular biology differs from biological chemistry in that the latter contemplates the history of molecules of DNA , which is why they observe in their structure their past (the moment in which their constitution took place). An organic molecule that is created at this time, however, only knows its present, has no past or history.
On the other hand is the organic chemistry , a branch of chemistry that covers the study of a large number of molecules, many of which have in their composition covalent bonds carbon-hydrogen or carbon-carbon, between various heteroatoms, which are also known as organic compounds. Since carbon is present in all compounds of this branch, it is also common to call it carbon chemistry.
How molecular biology studies molecules from the point of view of their behavior Biological, is in constant relationship with other sciences. For example, it shares with genetics the interest in the functioning and structure of genes, as well as in the regulation of the synthesis of certain proteins, such as enzymes.
It also approximates the cytology , when you look at the structure of the subcellular corpuscles (nucleolus, nucleus, robosomes, lysosomes, mitochondria, etc.) and the functions they carry out inside the cell. With Biochemistry he has in common the study of the kinetics and the composition of enzymes, with a special interest in the classes of activations, enzymatic catalysis and allosteric inhibitions, for example.
Despite these and other relationships that molecular biology has with certain sciences, it differs from all of them because of the methods You use to achieve your goals.