A Telegraph It is a machine used to transmit coded information through electrical signals . These devices were characterized in their time by the speed for the transmission of the data and by the distance that they were able to reach, although with the advance of the technology They were obsolete.
Throughout history different telegraphs are developed. In 1833 , after several initiatives that were successful in different parts of the world, Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Eduard Weber they created a telegraph line in Göttingen (Germany ) that allowed transmitting signals in a distance from 1200 meters .
For those years, Pavel Schilling also managed to transmit information between two telegraphs located in different environments of your home. He then expanded his experiment at the request of the Russian authorities and made a cable run in St. Petersburg .
The telegraph of Samuel Morse It was one of the best known. Next to Alfred Vail , this inventor and artist developed a code composed of spaces, stripes and dots that today is called Morse code and that is used to transmit messages. With the support of the US government, Morse promoted the installation of telegraph lines.
He electric telegraph , little by little, it spread throughout North America and various European regions. The next step of the evolution of the device was to install submarine cables that, in 1858 They even managed to cross the Atlantic Ocean .
One of the most interesting inventions in this race that drove so many people to get the transmission of long distance information was Hughes printing telegraph , which bears the last name of its creator, musician and physicist David Edward Hughes, of British origin. In 1855, while working on the creation of a device that allowed him to print every musical note he played on a keyboard, he found this peculiar and advanced telegraph, which he immediately patented.
At first glance, Hughes's telegraph resembles a small musical organ with a series of reels and gears on its back ; and this is not so far from its true functioning, since it also allows to fulfill the original objective of its creator, although thanks to the inclusion of a key to toggle between uppercase and lowercase letters (similar to what we now call "Uppercase" or "Shift") it was possible to transmit messages full text, which were printed at the reception point using a long strip of paper.
Hughes tried to market his product in North America, but the telegraph's patent there belonged to Samuel Morse; This led him to try in England, although he was rejected again, and finally succeeded in France. There he was put to the test for a year, and then acquired by the president of the Second French Republic, Napoleon III Bonaparte, who decorated him with the "Knight" medal.
In comparison with Morse's telegraph, Hughes' telegraph was much faster, as it gave the possibility of transmitting more than twice as many words per minute. On the other hand, it allowed the Print using normal characters, which nullified the need for translation before being read by the recipients. This does not mean that the process was accessible to any user, since its operation required the frequent pressure of a pedal and presented certain difficulties when entering characters that were very close.
It should be noted that different newspapers have been baptized as "The Telegraph" , inspired by the reach of the device to transmit information. exist daily called in this way in Ecuador and in Uruguay , for example.
The concept also gives the name to a hotel in Cuba and one seafood restaurant in Spain , among other commercial establishments.