In order to know the meaning of the term philology it is necessary, first, to discover its etymological origin. In this case, it should be noted that it derives from Greek, since it is the result of the sum of two lexical components of that language:
-The noun "philos", which can be translated as "friend" or "lover".
-The word "logos", which is synonymous with "study" or "treated."
It's about the scientific discipline dedicated to the analysis of a culture from his literature and his language .
Philology tends to focus on written texts , applying various techniques to achieve its reconstruction and thus interpret its original meaning. To access this sense, it is essential to know the culture in which it was created and the text in question was inserted.
The texts involve cultural manifestations that develop through the language . Philology allows you to study these expressions and generate knowledge about culture. This science is linked to the hermeneutics (interpretation of texts), the linguistics (the study of language) and the literary theory (focused on literature), among other fields of knowledge.
The origins of philology date back to the Ancient Greece . At that time, thinkers sought to explain certain texts from different perspectives, contributing to their real understanding. At Roman empire they also developed studies about the classics of Latin culture.
It is possible to distinguish between different philological traditions, such as Classical philology (the latin philology , the greek philology ) and the modern philology . Also classify it according to languages: English philology , the German philology , the Spanish philology , etc.
Among the most frequent applications of philology, are the analysis of links between different languages , the historical text editing and the literary comparison . It also allows to rebuild texts from the study of copies or manuscripts and attribute the author and the date to a work .
Among the most important philologists of all history we can especially highlight some such as the Swiss Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 - 1913), the Spanish Antonio Tovar (1911 - 1985), the Indo-European Günter Neumann or the French Pierre Chantraine (1899 - 1974 ), among others.
In the University there is the opportunity that anyone who wants it can be philology in one of its variants. At present, in Spain for example, there is the possibility of studying a degree in Hispanic philology, English philology, French philology, Arabic philology, classical philology ...
Those who carry out these university studies in any of their variants will then have the possibility of finding work as professors, as translators and linguistic mediators, as personnel in libraries, in international institutions, as editors and proofreaders, in publishing houses, making training manuals, as managers or coordinators in cultural institutions of different types, as editor ...
Throughout history, philology has been closely linked to other different disciplines, however, we cannot deny that the most connected and has is with art and history.