He brain It consists of several nerve centers. One of them is the cerebellum , located in the posterior region of the skull fossa and below the occipital lobes of the brain .
The function main cerebellum (whose name comes from Latin cerebellum) is to promote the integration of neurons Responsible for sensitivity and movement.
The instructions which reach the musculoskeletal system from the cerebral cortex, therefore, are controlled by the cerebellum. This makes a injury in this nerve center generate disorders linked to motor skills and balance.
Importantly, motor skills are not the only function that regulates the cerebellum. Learning, abilities of cognition, attention and even language They also have links with this organ that houses about 50% of brain neurons, although it only occupies 10% of its volume.
It should be noted that the brain (which is protected by the skull) and the spinal cord (the spine is responsible for its protection) constitute the so-called Central Nervous System , within which the cerebellum fulfills important functions.
It is known as cerebellar syndrome , on the other hand, to the lesion that has an impact on the entire surface, or much of it, of the cerebellum. East disorder, according to its characteristics, can be divided into:
* Vermis cerebellar syndrome: when the floculonodular lobe is compromised, there are signs and symptoms related to the system responsible for Balance and spatial control, which is called vestibular. Its influence produces a lack of muscular coordination that exclusively affects the head and trunk. It is very common that those who suffer from it tend to fall forward or backward and present difficulties in keeping their head immobile and in an upright position, which can also occur with respect to the trunk;
* hemispheric cerebellar syndrome: the origin of this variant of the disorder may be a tumor or the temporary or permanent decrease in irrigation blood of a cerebellar hemisphere. The key points are the movements of the arms and legs, which break down and appear messy and incoherent. It is also common for the body to tend to fall to the side where the lesion is.
Lesions of the cerebellum
Among the symptoms that reveal some damage to the cerebellum, are:
* hypotonia: which means that the tonicity muscular It is less than normal. It can be explored by moving the forearms to try to see if the hands sway too much, or using a rotary device so that the patient stands on it and see if their arms move excessively, or through the patellar reflex, if the leg hang for a while after the blow;
* ataxia: is the incoordination or alteration of voluntary movements. This can lead to exaggerated displacements of the limbs, without correctly measuring the path necessary to take them to a certain point. The faster and more unexpected the action, the more noticeable the problem will be, as well as the decomposition of the movement in question. One of the phenomena within ataxia is called adiadocokinesia, which consists of complications to perform alternative movements quickly;
* impaired balance and gait: patients who suffer from this symptom, feel an instability that leads them to need to separate their feet to maintain balance. Swings are common when walking, as if suffering from dizziness, and there are deviations towards the side of the injury;
* intentional tremor: which appears at the beginning of a movement and takes place in the proximal part of the member, that is, just before its extreme point. To detect it, the patient can be asked to touch his nose with his finger or drink a glass of water.