The Latin word microscopium he arrived in Spanish as microscope . This is the name of device that enables the observation of elements that are too small to be appreciated by the naked eye .
The origins of the microscope date back to the end of century XVI and are usually associated with the tests carried out by the Dutch Zacharias Janssen , lens manufacturer. From the development of these instruments, the science He made great progress, such as the discovery of the existence of cells and the possibility of visualizing bacteria and other microorganisms.
The approximate year with which the invention of the microscope is related by Janssen is 1590. Almost a century later, in 1665, the English physician William Harvey he used this device to observe the blood capillaries in the context of his investigation of blood circulation.
British scientist Robert hooke , on the other hand, was another of the pioneers in the use of the microscope; in his case, he left documented his observation of a cork sheet, in which he noticed the porosity of the material and the cavities in the form of small cells which he called cells, the first dead to be observed. A short time later, the Italian biologist and anatomist Marcello Malpighi used the microscope to look woven alive, and he became the first scientist to detect living cells.
One of the most significant names in this framework is that of Anton van Leeuwenhoek , a Dutch merchant from the mid-17th century who manufactured microscopes on his own and used them to describe red blood cells, sperm, bacteria and protozoa. Despite not having scientific studies, this man became one of the founders of bacteriology. While he decided not to reveal his techniques and methods, after his death the Royal Society of London for the Advancement of Natural Science It was made with many of its devices.
The eighteenth century arrived and with it a series of advances that allowed to improve and vary the design of the microscope. For example, Chris Neros and Flint crown they managed to create objectives achromatic, which then improved John dollond . The outstanding studies of Isaac Newton and Leonhard Euler They date from the same era.
During the nineteenth century it was discovered that phenomena of refraction and dispersion could be modified by properly combining several optical media. This resulted in the launch of the best achromatic objectives created so far. For the stability of the microscope, one of its fundamental properties, certain advances at the mechanical level were necessary. Another of the most important aspects is the amount of increases , something that began exceeding two hundred and now exceeds one hundred thousand.
There are various kinds of microscopes. He optical microscope is he who appeals to a system of lenses to enlarge the images, using the visible light . In this group we find the simple microscope , which is the most elementary instrument of this type: it has a single lens to increase the size of the observed, as in the case of the magnifying glass.
He compound optical microscope , meanwhile, it generates an enlarged image thanks to the use of two or more optical systems. Each one of these systems , which act in succession, presents one or more lenses.
He electronic microscope On the other hand, it does not use visible light, but instead uses radiation electronics . In this way the increases that are achieved are far superior to those offered by the optical microscope.
The most important difference between electron microscopes and optical microscopes, in short, is that the former use electrons and the seconds, photons . The divergence in the wavelength of electrons and photons mark the possibility of getting larger amplifications.