The idea of deflection , from the Latin word deflection, is used in the field of physical to name the act of divert the direction of a stream or a fluid . This is the definition provided by the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE ), although the concept has several uses.
In the field of engineering, it is known as deflection to the deformation that registers an item from the application of a force . Deflection, in this framework, is generated by a internal flexion .
It is possible to calculate deflection according to the laws that link forces and displacements through a geometric method or Energy . Deflection is a structural response before loading applications.
The concept of structural response It is located in the field of structural analysis , that is to say, the application of the equations of resistance of materials (the discipline of several fields of the engineering that is dedicated to the study of the mechanics of deformable solids by means of simplified models) to find the internal efforts (also called section efforts, these are physical quantities used to calculate prismatic pieces, sheets and plates), tensions and deformations that directly affect a resistant structure, such as skeletons or buildings.
In this framework, it is possible to estimate deflections using different calculation methods, some of which are as follows:
* real work : This is the method that takes advantage of the principle of energy conservation, which ensures that the total energy in all system Physical that is isolated does not change over time, although it may change shape. The energy produced by external work must be equal to that of the internal one that deforms the product due to the efforts generated by the loads. This method is limited to the analysis of a single unknown;
* from Castigliano : is the partial derivative of the elastic deformation, depending on the force. The basis of this method used to estimate deflections is found in the theorems of Castigliano, created by Italian engineer Carlo Alberto Castigliano in the 19th century;
* virtual work : It is the one that offers the most versatility within the group of those that are traditionally used for the evaluation of elastic deflections. It can only be applied to cases in which overlap is allowed;
* of double integration : serves to observe the equation of curvature of the beam, which follows from analyzing the differential of the elastic line of the same to pure bending;
* area of moments : used to calculate deflections of beams and porches, in addition to slopes;
* of the conjugate beam : basically, it consists in changing the deflections and slopes that occur on a beam to a system of applied loads. Since it does not require knowing a zero tangent point in advance, it allows you to find out the deflection and the slope at any point.
The concept of deflection is also used in the psychology . In this case, the deflection works as a Defense mechanism which consists in diverting or avoiding a contact, an emotion or a sensation. If a given situation causes stress to an individual, the subject may appeal to deflection to escape this situation and not be forced to cope.
Deflection makes the person Take an action that you do not need or that allows you not to do something that you really want to do. Everything to block what you don't want to experience.
Finally, in the field of botany, the notion of deflection is used to refer to the downward tilt of one or more organs . A flower with deflection exhibits its crooked peduncle ...