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A stone , from Latin petra, is a hard and compact mineral substance , that is, of high consistency. The stones are not earthy nor have a metallic appearance and are usually extracted from quarries, which are open pit mining.

Thanks to its natural characteristics, the stone is a material which is preserved over time without losing its main characteristics. The oldest tools built by humans and still preserved today come from the Paleolithic period: archaeologists believe that tools with wood or bones would have been built, without reaching our time for their worst conservation.

Within the field of construction, we should highlight that there are many types of stones that have been used and are still used when setting up a specific building. Thus, for example, we find the rough ones, which are the ones that are not carved, or the massive ones, which are those that are considered to have no type of defect.

However, in addition to all of them, we must highlight others that have been used by men for centuries to build their churches, cathedrals, castles or palaces. We are referring, for example, to those of masonry that are defined as being those that are obtained directly from the earth and not from any quarry.

Also found in the latter case are the ashlars. These stones are extracted from the quarry and are identified because when they are used in any construction, they can be joined together without material of any kind, which is called bone, or using mortar.

In the geology , the stones are known as rocks . The geological concept of rock, however, includes materials of low hardness (such as clay rocks). For the architecture, on the other hand, the stones are hard bodies that are born in the earth and that allow to work the walls of the buildings.

The calculations (abnormal concretions in the bladder), the thick hail and the iron and cerium alloy that is used in pocket lighters to produce the spark are also called stone. For example: "Ishmael will suffer long before he can expel the stones from his bladder", "The storm last night included the falling of stones that damaged the roofs of houses and vehicles".

The precious stones or gems they are, on the other hand, minerals, rocks or petrified materials that are used in jewelry.

In addition to all of the above, we must highlight that there are other important types of stones. Thus, for example, we find what is known as the cornerstone. This is a term that we can establish that is used when defining that something exerts as a fundamental pillar of something else.

The Philosopher Stone Finally, it is a substance that, according to alchemists, has the ability to transmute vulgar metals into gold or silver.

And all this without forgetting the existence of colloquial expressions that make use of the word stone. One of the most used is the one that says "less gives a stone". It is an expression with which we try to make it clear that someone must comply with what they have achieved, however little.

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