The concept of abstract derives from the Latin term abstractus and refers to certain quality where the subject is excluded . When the word is applied to artistic field or yet artist , describes the intention of not represent concrete beings or objects ; instead, only elements of shape, color, structure or proportion are contemplated, for example.
He abstract art It is, then, a style that focuses on formal, structural and chromatic details and deepens them through the accentuation of their value and expressive power. The abstract artist Does not mimic models or work according to natural-type inspiration .
Its origin dates back approximately to 1910 , as a reaction to realism and to the appearance of the Photography . In this way, abstract art does not consider that figurative representation is justified and, therefore, replaces it with an autonomous visual language that has its own meanings.
In the painting the abstract style moves away completely from the structures raised by realism where every work was a representation of something specific (landscapes, houses, flowers, living beings) and, using a language that has no form or specific codes and where freedom is seen reflected above all in the use of chromatism, it represents entities that do not have their model in reality. There are as many abstract universes as painters have turned to this type of artistic representation .
We owe the beginning of abstract painting to Wasily kandinsky , a Russian artist from the beginning of the last century who assured that in painting a round spot of colors could represent a human body because art is a consequence no longer of what we see but of how do we see it . The line, the plane and the space mean nothing, until they acquire a certain meaning from a discharge of energy that occurs within the mind of the artist.
If we observe the abstract sculpture We will find that throughout the twentieth century and this many artists have emerged that were inclined to develop an abstract style. Among them we can mention Hans (Jean) Arp who was also a painter and took his abstract notions of painting to three dimensions by performing organic forms that reflected his vision of reality, as the result of an organic body. It was he who developed an iconography that received the name of biomorphic sculpture to which they were delivered and continue to do so many plastic artists of the abstract.
When World War II ended, an artistic movement emerged that in a short time had a large number of adherents, the abstract expressionism . Its bases were in surrealism (boom movement in prewar) and was based on the combination of different techniques in the same work. An important style that becomes very popular in this movement is the collage , which uses mixtures of different materials or elements, such as plaster and sand, to give a flat fabric a certain three-dimensional roughness characteristic of the sculpture. Among the fundamental protagonists of abstract expressionism were Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning .
One of the fundamental representatives of Spanish abstract expressionism is José Manuel Ciria who has made exhibitions in important centers such as the Cervantes Institute of Chicago, the Valencian Institute of Modern Art, and in galleries in Paris, the United States, England, Argentina and Portugal.
The abstract in grammar, mathematics and philosophy
In the field of grammar there is the term of abstract noun . To understand this concept it is necessary to clarify previously the noun.
A noun is one of the fundamental elements in a sentence , which does not need the appearance of another to make sense and exist within it (house, child, dogs, Elena). The same does not happen with the adjectives that are always linked to a noun that they modify in one way or another (cute, friendly, playful, blonde). Nouns can be divided into several types, some of them opposite each other. This is the case with the classification of concrete and abstract nouns.
A noun is abstract when used to mention an object that can only be appreciated or believed using the intelligence , Unlike the nouns that are part of the group of concretes , where objects appear that are perceived thanks to the senses.
According to the philosopher José Ortega y Gasset we can understand by abstract noun that word that names an object that is not independent , that is, that you always need another element to rely on in order to be. This means that these nouns, not referring to a specific element, refer to objects that cannot be perceived with the senses, but can be imagined.
Some examples of abstract nouns are the love and the happiness ; so are certain political concepts such as power, dictatorship and democracy and so are the seasons of the year, science and religion.
On the other hand, a verb is abstract when it is constituted by "be", a copulative verb that is given the attribute function and lacks a specific meaning. In the statement "I am a human being", "I am" It stands out with an abstract verb.
In the field of mathematics there is the concept of abstract algebra which brings together the sector of mathematics that works with algebraic schemes (ring, group, body or vector space). This study arose from the need to obtain greater accuracy in mathematical definitions.
It is also worth mentioning within this definition the notion of Abstract thinking , which refers to the inner worlds created by the human being to understand existence. It consists of the way in which the human being grouped the ideas, concepts, images and objects that allow him to contain the knowledge.