The notion of potential It can be used in various ways. As an adjective, it refers to something that has power , virtues or power . Potential can also be a type of magnitude that indicates changes in other different magnitudes. Electric , on the other hand, is something that has or transmits electricity , or that manages to work thanks to her.
It is known as electric potential to the job that an electrostatic field has to carry out to mobilize a positive unit charge from one point to another. It can be said, therefore, that the work to be carried out by an external force to move a load from one reference point to another is the electrical potential.
It should be mentioned that this concept should not be confused with that of electric potential energy, although both are related in some cases, since the latter is the energy of an electric charge system according to its position.
As formula , indicates that the electrical potential of a point X to a point AND it is the work necessary to move the unit positive charge that since X to AND . The volts and the joules (or joules ) are the units used to express the electrical potential.
It is important to consider that the concept of electrical potential starts from the idea of what is known as conservative field , where there is a force with a tendency to compensate the field's own strength so that the charged particle remains in static equilibrium. If the intention is to work with loads that are in motion, it is necessary to appeal to potentials of Liénard-Wiechert .
Within the framework of a electrical circuit , the existing electrical potential at one point reflects the Energy that the load units have when passing through the point in question. When the charging unit goes through the circuit in the manner of electric current, it loses energy while passing through the different components. This loss of energy will have different manifestations through works such as lighting that appears in a lamp or the movement that is achieved in an engine, to name two possibilities. To recover the energy, the load must pass through a voltage generator.
Electric potential difference
If there is a positive burden of proof (which we will call q sub zero) with a countryside electric, and it moves from a point TO to a point B, keeping the balance without exception, then the work that has to be done by the agent that moves the load must be measured with the formula that can be seen in the image, which is called electric potential difference.
Said work (W sub AB) can have a value negative, positive or null, and the electrical potential corresponding to B be less, greater than or equal respectively to the potential of TO. According to the International System of Units (YES), to which all countries of the world except the United States, Liberia and Burma respond, the difference in electrical potential must be represented by Joule / Coulomb, which equals 1 volt.
The energy acquired for a electron that travels along a 1 volt electrical potential difference is called electron volt (eV). When larger units of energy become necessary it is possible to take advantage of the kiloelectronvolt, he megaelectronvolt or the gigaelectronvolt.
If that definition is applied to the theory of circuits it is possible to point out that the electrical potential at a point is nothing other than the energy of each unit of charge at the moment in which it crosses said point of the circuit. Therefore, if the charging unit passes through a circuit and is constituted in electric current, it gradually loses its energy.