Polymerase is the name that receives the enzyme in charge of catalyze the synthesis of certain biopolymers. As you can see, to understand the term it is necessary to have several clear concepts.
Let's start with the notion of enzyme . This is the name of the protein (substances composed of chains of amino acids) that specifically catalyze a particular biochemical reaction of metabolism.
The verb catalyze , meanwhile, refers to producing a catalysis (accelerating a reaction), while the synthesis It allows to obtain a compound based on simpler substances. A biopolymer finally it is a polymer (chemical compound formed by polymerization and developed through the repetition of structural units) that acts in biological processes.
Returning to the idea of polymerase, we can say that it is a particular type of protein (a enzyme ) what allows to synthesize certain chemical compounds (biopolymers ) with higher speed . Its most important function is linked to nucleic acids : he ribonucleic acid or RNA and the deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA .
Polymerases allow transcription of these acids . In the case of RNA polymerases , resort to ribonucleotides to achieve the synthesis of RNA starting from a sequence of DNA It stands as a kind of mold. The DNA polymerases , on the other hand, pair complementary deoxyribonucleotides with deoxyribonucleotides triphosphate to synthesize new chains of DNA .
It is known as Polymerase chain reaction finally at technique created by the American biochemist Kary mullis in 1986 . Call PCR for the English expression polymerase chain reactionThis resource serves to generate multiple copies of a small piece of DNA, which is useful for detecting viruses or bacteria, identifying genetic fingerprints or diagnosing some disorders.