The Greek word bránchia derived in Latin branchĭa, which arrived in Spanish as gill . A gill is called a organ of the respiratory system that have diverse aquatic animals .
The gills, which can be external or internal, are composed of filaments whose origin is integumentary. These organs allow the animal to obtain the oxygen that is in the water and, simultaneously, expel carbon dioxide to the environment
Once absorbed, oxygen reaches the animal's fluids and then at cells , who need it to breathe through the mitochondria. Cellular respiration generates carbon dioxide, which the gills allow to eliminate from the body.
It can be said, therefore, that gills (also called guts ) are the structures where a gas exchange which is called hematosis . Thanks to the gills, animals can breathe under the Water .
There are two major types of gills. The annelids and the mollusks , among others, have branched appendages . The fishes instead they have slits that establish a communication between the outside and the digestive tract. In this way, water enters through the mouth from the fish and then out through these holes. In the process, the blood is oxygenated and carbon dioxide is expelled.
It should be noted that there are species whose larvae they have gills to breathe underwater, but that in adulthood develop lungs that allow them to breathe on the earth's surface. That is the case of amphibians such as frogs .
On the other hand, species of smaller size and metabolic rate do not have gills, but instead carry out the exchange of gases through the surface of their body. They are the largest or those that require a larger area that through their evolution have managed to develop this structure specialized.
In 2016, a group of inventors from Stockholm presented a manufacturing project for some micromanagement campaigns. artificial gills . His name is Triton and it is a small and light device similar in appearance to the handlebars of a bicycle, which the user only holds with his mouth; in theory, it would avoid almost all disorders and limitations that are associated with the use of oxygen tubes, especially in terms of dimensions and comfort to move underwater.
The total prototype extension of these artificial gills is 29 centimeters, something that makes it very easy to transport. With respect to its structure, it consists of a series of microporous fibers and a compressor that serves to supply two tanks of oxygen For its operation, Triton requires the use of a lithium-ion battery. The diameter of the pores is smaller than that of the water molecules, and therefore only oxygen enters the tank.
Despite having offered an attractive presentation video for the project and a fairly detailed list of technical specifications, numerous users accused the creators of scammers, pointing out various reasons why this device could not offer benefits That promises. A fact that could have served to increase the enthusiasm of investors but that has also given rise to teasing is that its design is inspired by one of the James Bond accessories.
In any case, sooner or later science will find better versions of the current teams of breathing underwater It is that human beings admire the abilities of certain animals to the point of doing everything possible to emulate them: we want to fly like birds, swim like fish and breathe underwater without problem, because we don't like the limits that nature imposed on us .